The trabucchi (variants of Abruzzo and Molise also called overflow, scales or travocco) is an old fishing machine typical of the coast of Gargano, Molise and Abruzzo, protected as monuments by the Gargano National Park and widespread in the lower Adriatic until some locations the northern coast of the province of Bari. It is also present in some parts of the coast of the Tyrrhenian.
The construction features
The overflow is an imposing building made of wood structure consisting of a platform anchored to the rock jutting out into the sea by large pine logs of Aleppo, from where you can stretch, they suspended a few meters from the water, two (or more) long arms, such antennas, claiming huge tight mesh that pitfall.
The different morphology of the Abruzzo coast and Gargano determined the presence of two different types of overflow: the Gargano provides the anchor to a rock platform extending longitudinally to the coastline, from which branch antennas. The original type Abruzzo, technically said scale, often insists on coasts less deep and therefore is characterized by the presence of a platform in a transverse position with respect to the coast, to which is connected by a bridge made from wooden platforms, also scales have a only winch, electrically operated often, even when the sea is perfectly calm and the network is much smaller than that of the overflow Gargano; Another feature that distinguishes the two types is the length and the number of antennas, the most extensive in the Gargano (also twice that of Abruzzo and Molise); Termoli scales have a maximum of two antennas, Gargano and North Barese, in Barletta, Trani and Molfetta, always two or more.
Some historians Puglia, the overflow would be an invention imported by the Phoenicians. The oldest date documented existence dates back to the eighteenth century, a period in which the fishermen had Abruzzo strive to design a fishing technique that is not subject to weather and sea conditions in the area. The overflow, in fact, allow the fish without having to submit to the sea: exploiting the morphology of some fishing grounds of the rocky coast, were built in the most prominent points and headlands, aggettando nets out to sea through a system of monumental wooden arms.
The overflow is traditionally built with the wood of Aleppo pine, the pine common throughout the Middle Adriatic; because this is an almost inexhaustible material, due to the spread in the area, moldable, resistant to salt and elastic (the overflow has to withstand strong gusts of mistral flying the southern Adriatic). Some overflows have been rebuilt in recent years, thanks to public funds such as the Abruzzo regional law n.99 of 09/16/1997, but however long since lost their economic function which in past centuries it was the main source of by entire families of fishermen, acquiring in return the role of cultural symbols and tourist attraction. Some overflows were even converted to restaurants. The term “overflow” is derived by synecdoche from that of the above network, ie from the trap, and this, which is also used nell’uccellagione and is synonymous with ‘trap’, is due to the type of fishing, that is, because the fish falls into a trap.
The fishing technique, however, very effective, is open to view. It is to intercept, with the major networks tightly woven, flows of fish moving along the ravines of the coast. The overflows are placed where the sea has a depth adequate (at least 6m), and erect sheltered by rocky peaks typically oriented towards SE or NO, so you can take advantage of favorable currents.
The network (which is technically a network to scale) is lowered into the water thanks to a complex system of winches and, at the same time, is promptly pulled up to retrieve the catch. At least two men entrusted with the tough task of operating winches appointed to run the giant network, in small overflow of the coast of Molise and Abruzzo winch is often operated electrically. On overflow operate normally four men (which share the tasks of sighting of the fish and maneuvering), known as “overflowing”.
The overflows are a distinguishing feature of the coastal landscape of the southern Adriatic. Their presence is also attested along the Tyrrhenian.
Ubiquitous along the coast of the Province of Chieti in which they originate, overflows are so frequent that give life to the so-called Costa dei Trabocchi, extending precisely from Ortona to Vasto.
The overflows are common but also further south, between the coasts of Molise and Puglia on the Gargano coast, especially in the area between Peschici and Vieste, where they were called “trabucchi”, they are even protected by the Gargano National Park and came back in business thanks to ‘action to safeguard and enhance the Park, which adopted them as a sign of respect for tradition and the environment Gargano. In fact many were also on the Apulian coast to the south of the Gargano, where recent historical research currently under way have shown several structural residues of ancient overflows still visible, for example in Barletta, where he survives one albeit in poor condition , of the original five, all located on the arms of the port. At Trani four in number, and all disappeared in Molfetta where some was verified the presence of at least one overflow, Cala San Giacomo, now disappeared. Towards the middle of 1970 he built a trabucchi also on the Ligurian coast in the locality. Vesima (prov. Of Genoa). The plant was decommissioned almost immediately and held out as a framework for a number of years.